CULTIVATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS
the cultivation of medicinal plants on plantations. Includes a range of activities aimed at studying the regularities of development of plants in new conditions of growth and development of agrotechnical measures for their cultivation. Work on the introduction in culture of new kinds of medicinal plants carried out in 3 stages. The first stage is the gathering of seed and planting material. This is the main stage of the work, because populations of wild medicinal plants in different parts of their ranges differ in the quantitative content of biologically active substances, and these differences are genetically determined. Requires the accumulation of a large number of planting or sowing material, represents the maximum number of forms and ecotypes of the studied species. In parallel, study the environmental conditions and characteristics of growth and development of wild medicinal plants. In the second stage set of biological features of wild species in terms of culture and its biological potential. Study the life cycle of plants and necessary conditions of the external environment; growth and yield (productivity) of the plant development phase during procurement of raw material; the content of active (bioactive) substances in raw materials, etc. On the basis of the information received provide an economic evaluation of new medicinal crops (expect the cost of raw materials), determine the area of its placement, develop farming techniques of cultivation on the plantation.The need for selecting the areas for cultivation of new medicinal crops due to the geographical variability of their raw material productivity and content of biologically active substances. For example, in the dry subtropics of the content in the plant alkaloids, saponins, essential oils and Sugars is significantly higher than that in Northern and middle belt. Some plants can grow only within their natural range, others tolerate acclimatization. While the work on the accumulation of seed (or planting) of material for laying experimental and production plantations with an area of 0.5-1.0 ha. the result of the second phase – the conclusion about possibility of cultivation of this medicinal plants and preliminary recommendations on agricultural techniques of cultivation. In the third stage under conditions close to production, studying the field of culture of medicinal plants, its place in crop rotations, methods of seedbed preparation, timing, rates and methods of sowing (planting), techniques of care of plants; apply fertilizers and other. The last phase is the preparation of agro-technical recommendations on the cultivation of specific medicinal plants on plantations.
Work on the introduction in culture of new kinds of medicinal plants is very long and labor-intensive: annual medicinal plants requires 3-4 years, perennial, vegetative reproducing plants is 6-7 years, and for perennials, reproducing by seed, up to 10 years. The period from the completion of the study medicinal plants to create its resource base lasts at least another 5 years. Thus, the creation of raw materials base of a new drug takes 8 years for annual crops and up to 15 years for years. In culture introduced the most significant for the pharmaceutical industry types, required to create new drugs, including species that are not found in the wild and has no analogues in the flora of the country. cultivation of medicinal plants R. L. allows you to expand the range of used types, to provide the good-quality raw material. Currently developed the basic techniques of agronomical cultivation to more than 60 species of medicinal plants.